Antidepressants are the initial option for treating depression. The annual sales of antidepressants is about $50 billion, making this category of medications one of the most commonly prescribed. A lot of pharmaceutical companies are involved in direct sales of antidepressants to the public via print and television.
Zunestar 2 mg helps the patients who suffer from depression. Patients are a major influencer on the prescribing practices of health professionals in relation to this kind of medicine. They are frequently prescribed for depression however, what exactly are they? What exactly do they do? Are they efficient?
This article is intended to be informative only, and isn’t intended to provide medical advice. Anyone in need of help to determine the diagnosis and treatment for depression should seek advice from their doctor and/or pharmacist.
The depressive or major depressive disorder, also known as TDM is also known as unipolar depression or clinical depression, is seen in around 15 million Americans every year. It can strike at any time (including children younger than 5 years old) however, it most often is seen in people aged 25-44 years of age. MDD is a problem that affects around 20 percent of women, as well as 10% of males. TDM can cause a decrease in productivity at school and work. It is also the most common cause of suicide.
The TDM in contrast to the shorter times in “melancholy” is a persistent shift in mood that may impact family relationships and self-esteem. Repeated episodes can last days, months , or even years. The TDM is a mental and physical symptoms, including:
- depression (sadness)
- Loss of interest or enjoyment
- sleep disruption
- feelings of despair, worthlessness feeling of hopelessness, despair and hopelessness
- changes in appetite and weight loss, or weight gain
- The loss of sexual attraction
- difficulty to process thoughts, concentrate , or take decisions
To be diagnosed as having a clinical manifestation of MDD The symptoms should occur regularly for a minimum duration of two weeks.
The symptoms may also arise from other conditions like diabetes, hypertension or heart disease as well as epilepsy. It is therefore possible that the depressive symptoms are the result of a different illness. Because there isn’t a lab test for depression, doctors can run several test to exclude other potential ailments. If none of these are found to be the case then the only remaining diagnosis is TDM.
How Antidepressants Work?
Antidepressants stop certain aspects of synaptic communication in neurons that contain serotonin dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. This increases the concentrations of neurotransmitters. As a result of the increased neurotransmitter levels, moods and moods should improve and possibly be restored to their normal levels. But, as certain neurotransmitters (such as norepinephrine) are located in neural pathways that run through the brain as well as other areas that comprise the nerve system certain antidepressants could cause adverse effects such like modifications in blood pressure or saliva production. In addition, because the system associated with TDM are located at the base of the brain and stem, antidepressants could hinder other functions such as sleep, appetite and sexual activity.
Antidepressants are classified based on the neurotransmitters they affect and the way they impact. Let’s look at the various types of antidepressants.
Selective Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)
SSRIs Antidepressants, which are prescribed generally, came into use in the mid-80s. SSRIs hinder serotonin’s transport back to the pre-synaptic cells. This increases the amount of serotonin in the synaptic cleft, increasing the activity of postsynaptic cells. The SSRIs comprise the following substances:
- Fluoxetine (Prozac)
- Paroxetine (Paxil)
- Sertraline (Zoloft)
- Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
- Citalopram (Celexa)
- Escitalopram (Lexapro)
The different SSRIs have the same efficacy and are are well-accepted by patients. But, not all react exactly the same way, which means certain patients might experience more negative side effects of different types than SSRIs. Most antidepressants are prescribed at least once per every day. However, the active forms of fluoxetine found in the body has a longer duration of half-life (stays longer) and, consequently, patients are able to take it only once every day, reducing the chance of not taking the dosage. In high doses sertraline and paroxetine interfere in the brain’s neurotransmission of dopamine as well as serotonin.
To lessen the effects that could make a patient stop taking the medication, doctors generally start SSRIs in low doses, and gradually increase them until the dose that is desired. Some of the side effects are dizziness, nausea vomiting, dizziness, anxiety, insomnia, anorexia and sexual dysfunction. To treat insomnia Hypnite 2 mg is the best option.
Tricyclic antidepressants as well as selective reuptake inhibitors of norepinephrine
Tricyclic antidepressants were introduced in the latter half of the 50th century and the early 60th. Similar to SSRIs, these substances block the reuptake of norepinephrine in the presynaptic cell, consequently increasing its presence inside the synaptic junction.
Tricyclic antidepressants are:
- Nortriptyline (Pamelor)
- Maprotiline (Ludiomil)
- Desipramine (Norpramine)
- Amitriptyline (Elavil)
- Clomipramine (Anafranil)
- Imipramine (Tofranil)
Tricyclic antidepressants alter the heart rate and blood pressure due to the fact that norepinephrine is an important neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous systems that regulates blood pressure as well as heart rate. The side effects are the postural hypotension (blood pressure is below normal) as well as Tachycardia (rapid heartbeat) dry mouth retention in the urinary tract along with blurred and distorted vision. Tricyclic antidepressants shouldn’t be often used because of their several adverse consequences. For patients who are unable to manage SSRIs as well as other drugs for depression tricyclics can be effective. The physician should monitor the patient carefully to observe the emergence of any serious adverse effects.
Tricyclic antidepressants act as non-selective inhibitors for the reuptake process of norepinephrine because their chemical structures are similar to that of norepinephrine. Reboxetine (Edronax) Reuptake inhibitors are more specific in that it has a better affinity to transporter reuptake but is not available on the market in the United States.