A Vitamin is an organic molecule that requires by a living organism in minute amounts for good health. If an organism deprives of all sources of a particular vitamin. it will suffer from disease symptoms specific to that vitamin. Vitamins are classified as water-soluble, dissolving easily in water, or fat-soluble, absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids.
Vitamins in you
In humans, there are thirteen vitamins that divide into two groups, the four fat-soluble vitamins – A, D, E, and K and nine water-soluble vitamins – eight B vitamins and vitamin C.
Fat-soluble vitamins in detail
The deficiency of Vitamin A (Retinol) causes night-blindness and keratomalacia. Its average daily intake required in the human body is
620μg. Then there are five vitamins under vitamin D and the average daily intake of all five should be 2 μg. These are vitamin D1 (Lamisterol), vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol), vitamin D3 (Calciferol), vitamin D4 (Dihydrotachysterol), and vitamin D5 (7-dehydrositosterol). The deficiency of anyone will also cause Rickets. The chemical name of vitamin E is tocopherol. Its average daily intake should be 12 mg. It is important to note that the deficiency of vitamin E leads to infertility in females. Then vitamin K is the chemical Naphthoquinone and its average daily requirement is 75 μg. Its deficiency doesn’t find to show any specific disorder.
Water-soluble vitamins in detail
In humans, the water-soluble vitamins are nine which includes eight B vitamins and vitamin C. Vitamin B1 or Thiamine’s average daily requirement is 1mg. Its deficiency leads to Beriberi. Unlike vitamin D, all vitamin B require in different quantities. Vitamin B2 is chemically Riboflavin. Its daily requirement is 1.1mg on average and its deficiency leads to Ariboflavinosis. Vitamin B3 whose deficiency leads to pellagra is Niacin and its requirement is 12mg daily. The chemical name of Vitamin B5 is Pantothenic acid. It is important to note that the deficiency of vitamin E leads to Paresthesias. Then vitamin B6 is chemically its name Pyridoxine and its average daily requirement is 1.1 mg. Its deficiency doesn’t cause any specific disorder. Vitamin B7 and Vitamin B9 have daily requirements of
30 μg and 320 μg respectively on an average. Vitamin B12 whose deficiency causes Pernicious and anemia are also called Cyanocobalamin. 2 μg of it requires on a daily basis. Finally, there is vitamin C or ascorbic acid whose major source is fruits. Its deficiency leads to 75 mg
Based on their solubility, vitamins are classified as fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are those which dissolve in water and don’t get stored as they eliminate in urine. They are required in a regular supply by the body. Examples of water-soluble vitamins are the vitamin B complex and vitamin C. These vitamins get destroyed simply during the storage or preparation of food. But this destruction can minimize by using proper methods of preparation and storage. In order to accomplish that they should refrigerate just when freshly prepare, kept away from strong light, and by using the water left after washing vegetables to prepare soups. Examples of water-soluble vitamins are vitamin B complex and vitamin C.
Vitamin B complex:
The constituents of the vitamin B complex include vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and pantothenic acid. They assist the body to attain energy from the food. They affect appetite, vision, skin, red blood cell formation, and the nervous system. During a process called enrichment of grains and grain products, essential nutrients (which were lost during processing) like the vitamin, niacin; riboflavin, folate, and iron are added. The deficiency of these vitamins causes beriberi, pellagra, and pernicious anemia. Rice, breakfast cereals, white flour, bread, and pasta include the list of enriched grain products.
Vitamin C plays an important role in the healing of wounds, bone and tooth formation, strengthening of blood vessels, and proper functioning of the immune system. It is a citrus fruit and its deficiency causes scurvy. Vitamin C cannot synthesize by the human body. This factor makes their daily consumption even more important. But it should not forget that the storage capacity of the body limit. The adequate intake of the vitamin can accomplish by consuming vitamin C-rich foods like citrus fruits.
The conditions of stress, use of drugs like oral contraceptives, fever, infection, smoking, and growth especially in the case of children and pregnant women alleviate the need for vitamin C by the body.